Ni of surface of pottery and porcelain
- source:NEHMER CNC Machining
The Result Indicates It Is Feasible That Ni-Cu-P Alloy Is Used To Replac Valuable Metal Silver As Electrode Material.
It ′ S Every Technical Targets, capacity, loss, combine Strength And Solderability, meet Electrode Material Requirements.
Key Wotds:NI-Cu-P;Electroless Plating;Ceramics needs component of many pottery and porcelain in the production of capacitor of pottery and porcelain, and the electrode that metallic silver basically uses to regard contented as ceramics in active production, its production methods basically is burn reductive method through high temperature bright and make component surface metallization, wait for processing process through polarization next and get element of pottery and porcelain. Because of aborning, need many precious metal silver, manufacturing cost is so high, economic benefits is low, and bad news can be bigger. Because be not the ceaseless development of technology of metallization of conductor material surface, and in industrial production, the application of this kind of technology is more general, in recent years, appeared to regard electrode of component of pottery and porcelain as the new method of material and new technology with metallic nickel. The method of the silver that burn ooze that uses alloy of chemical plating Ni-Cu-P to replace a tradition makes the electrode of capacitor of pottery and porcelain, can raise the dependability of porcelain interpose capacitor, overcome silver-colored electrode silver ionic and migratory with silver and defect of soldering tin eutectic, save silver, reduce cost. This technology technological process is simple, the technology is advanced, investment is little, equipment demand is not high, economic benefits and social benefit are distinct, product performance is good. 1 experiment method 1.
Pottery and porcelain of 1 technological process base piece change aftertreatment of Ni-Cu-P of activation chemistry plating except oily thick Hua Min plating. 1.
2 main working procedure show (1) eliminates oily goal except oil is surface of eliminate pottery and porcelain is smeary, hurried coarsen is changed even, raise film adhesion. Use the organic dissolvent such as alcohol, acetone but eliminate radical piece of the surface smeary. (2) is thick change those who use strong acid sex is thick change solution to produce chemical dip corrode to the structure of surface of pottery and porcelain, make matrix forms countless small hole, make workpiece surface microcosmic and rough reach form porous structure, increase the interface of film and porcelain matrix surface to accumulate. (3) sensitize is in process of metallization of surface of pottery and porcelain, sensitize craft is crucial working procedure. Sensitize craft is will classics is thick after changing base piece in putting SnCl2/HCl solution, immerse, the bath after be being taken out, make adsorption generates Sn(OH)Cl adsorption in SnCl2 hydrolyze of the surface at base piece the surface. (Craft of 4) activation activation is the surface of pottery and porcelain after passing sensitize form very thin and the metallic layer that has catalysis. After changing classics allergy base piece in putting PdCl2/HCL solution, sn(OH)Cl reductive Pd2+ , adsorption is in base piece the surface, these palladium metal particle will be the catalytic center of chemical plating. (Alloy of Ni-Cu-P of 5) chemical plating is vitriolic nickel (NiSO4. of of 6H2O) 0.
152mol/dm3 bluestone (CuSO4. of of 5H2O) 4.
0 × 10-3mol/dm3 second inferior phosphoric acid natrium (NaH2PO2. H2O) 0.
236mol/dm3 citric acid natrium (NaC6H5O7. 2H2O) 0.
Ammonium of 136mol/dm3 acetic acid ( of of of CH3COONH4) 0.
52mol/dm3pH is worth (move with ammonia water) of of of of 6.
5 ～ 8.
70 ～ of of of of of of of of of of 5 temperature after 60min of plating of 90 ℃ , can get even, close metal film. Film composition is undertake on lens of report of Japanese ASM-SX scanning can chart analyses, alloy of its eventuate Ni-Cu-P contains Ni90% , Cu7.
2% , P2.
8% . The influence of 2 each elements to deposition rate 2.
1 vitriolic nickel falls in the circumstance with other changeless condition, change the content of vitriolic nickel, equal to area size (the contented ceramics of D10mm × 1mm) undertakes applying plating, the relation of vitriolic nickel chroma and deposition rate sees a picture 1. By the graph 1 visible, the chroma when vitriolic nickel from 0.
114 ～ 0.
When 152mol/dm3, bigger to the influence of deposition rate, but from 0.
152 ～ 0.
When 190mol/dm3, lesser to the influence of deposition rate. Graph the influence of chroma of 1 vitriolic nickel to deposition rate 2.
Chroma of 2 bluestone bluestone sees to the influence of deposition rate the graph is shown 2 times, see by the graph, increase as bluestone pH indicator, deposition rate drops, from 2.
0 × 10-3mol/dm3 arrives 4.
Downtrend of 0 × 10-3mol/dm3 is slow, from 4.
0 × 10-3mol/dm3 arrives 6.
Downtrend of 0 × 10-3mol/dm3 is big. Graph the influence of 2 bluestone chroma to deposition rate 2.
3 times phosphoric acid natrium changes the chroma of natrium of second phosphoric acid only, the result sees a picture 3, can see from inside the graph, the influence of natrium of second phosphoric acid to deposition rate, when density is low, the influence is minor, when chroma is big, effect tendency is old. Pursue 3 times the influence of chroma of phosphoric acid natrium to deposition rate 2.
Temperature of fluid of plating of temperature of 4 plating fluid sees a picture to the influence of deposition rate 4, can see from inside the graph, as temperature elevatory, deposition rate rises by exponential rule. Graph the influence of temperature of 4 plating fluid to deposition rate 2.
5 PH is worth from the graph 5 can see, when PH the value is less than 8.
5 when, the value that follow PH increases, deposition rate rises sharply, in 8.
5 above increase scarcely, because when PH the value is less than,this is 8.
5 when, in plating fluid system, as PH the value increases, effective nickel ion and cupreous ion chroma drop, and the addition that the reductive ability of natrium of second phosphoric acid is worth along with PH and increase quickly, total effect is deposition rate increases point-blank, in PH the value is more than 8.
5 when, because the PH value of plating fluid is to use ammonia water adjustment, ionic chroma of the Ni-Cu in plating fluid and ammoniac element complexing, accordingly, effective and ionic chroma is reduced, deposition rate increases lesser. Graph the influence that PH of 5 plating fluid is worth pair of deposition rate 3 tests result and discuss 3.
The essence that 1 film shows nickel of plating of chemistry of matrix of small observation pottery and porcelain with what matrix of pottery and porcelain is united in wedlock is a metal and metalloid the material that these two kinds of property differ completely, the method of chemically plating is united in wedlock together, form a kind of new-style composite material. Because this kind of composite material has wide applied range, consequently the union of film and matrix of pottery and porcelain appears very important. About the account that metallic film can combine with metalloid data phase, have kind of two kinds of union commonly: It is mechanical union; 2 it is chemical bond and diffusing union. Before undertaking chemical plating to matrix of pottery and porcelain, should undertake to surface of pottery and porcelain thick change processing. Pass chemistry thick after changing, the surface is formed a lot of microscopical indentation, after classics sensitize, activation is handled, the adsorption that shows metallic particle goes out inside these indentation. In chemical plating craft, ceaselessly deposit gives metallic particle, the metallic particle of gradually chemical deposit is full of these indentation and make metallic grain joins each other, form metallic layer. Because chemical film is deposit,mix in microcosmic indentation rough whole apparently, rise to whole film " the hammer is buckled " action, this kind of mechanical adhesion makes film and surface of pottery and porcelain have firm link. Chemical bond union is material of pottery and porcelain and the important form that metallic film combines, contented ceramics is in thick when corrode of the dip in changing solution, the appearance that can enhance pottery and porcelain is active, classics redox, surface of pottery and porcelain can produce some kind of chemical bond with metallic film, make material of pottery and porcelain and metallic film have higher combinative strength. Additional, diffuse the union that action is helpful for metallic film and matrix of pottery and porcelain, below action of chemical plating temperature, aggravate of motion of metallic film element, diffuse to base material surface, also increased the combinative strength of metallic film and matrix on certain level. 3.
Of 2 union strength determine in the process in chemical plating, ask film and matrix of pottery and porcelain have firm combinative strength. If the combinative strength of film and matrix of pottery and porcelain is poorer, in use process film can be flaked, criterion all sorts of functions of component all can be affected by huge, serious when can lose use value. So, the combinative strength of film is the main index that become apparent of all pottery and porcelain learns plating Ni-Cu-P alloy. Experiment of cold hot loop examines namely the method of film adhesion, it is to use film and hot coefficient of expansion of matrix of pottery and porcelain to differ, heat sample to constant temperature, after cooling via air room temperature, of film and matrix of pottery and porcelain expand and contract, generation is out of shape differently, together with sample is in in chemical plating process outside the gas of matrix of infiltration pottery and porcelain ease, generate pressure to film, make film produces change below the action of these two kinds of force, observe its result, examine thereby the combinative strength of film. Sample classics 10min of room temperature of of 200 ℃ 20min is of 20min of room temperature of of 100 ℃ 20min the cold hot circulation that one cycle has 10 cycle experiments, the Ni-Cu-P film on contented ceramics did not appear bubbly, desquamate and crackle phenomenon. Additional, pass soldering tin to join to be being parted to use copper cash by film of Ni-Cu-P of double of plating contented ceramics, by drawing of pull test machine, determine the combinative strength between film and matrix of pottery and porcelain, its check data to see a table 1, from the watch 1 in can see, its combine intensity to be 533 × 104Pa, explain the combinative strength between film and pottery and porcelain is higher. Express the combinative strength number between 1 film and matrix × of P/Pa of strength of 1234 average band 1045065575235455333.
The sex of solder of soft drill rod of 3 film solders the assembly in electronic component has important place in craft, but, traditional silver-gilt layer easy oxidation and be able to bear or endure solder sex is poor, and craft requirement is slashing, accordingly, the contented ceramics that plating has Ni-Cu-P alloy is in the welding flux solution of melt dip 5s, solder with constant temperature of 75W electric iron the stannum on alloy of 1 ～ 3s, its solder firm, solder dot is smooth, explain sex of solder of soft drill rod is very good, use 75W electric iron additionally, after contacting 5s, fall off without film and damage, accordingly, be able to bear or endure solder sex is good, the reason with good sex of solder of soft drill rod of Ni-Cu-P alloy film depends on film surface structure compact, hole rate is little, fight oxidation ability to increase, additional, imposing hot condition, cu-Sn interface can produce reaction to diffuse, generate Cu3Sn of the compound between the metal, this makes film and soldering tin can form firm union. 3.
The test of 4 capacities and loss uses pottery and porcelain of titanium acerbity Strontium to regard the medium between capacitor plate as material, in matrix of wafer of pottery and porcelain alloy of the Ni-Cu-P on two side plating serves as electrode, make capacitor. Any actual capacitor, below electric field action, want to waste energy. Capacitor keep in storage or deliver electric energy change to be heat energy, make capacitor calorific partly among them, temperature is elevatory, another part is used up in the environment all round, issue capacitor in electric field action normally, be called the loss of capacitor because of the energy that give out heat and wastes. Because the value of capacitor loss is great, accordingly, the capacity of the capacitor that makes to place of alloy of Ni-Cu-P of plating of surface of pottery and porcelain and loss have a test. Through be opposite with CY2611 capacitance measuring instrument the test result of 6 sample sees a table 2. The capacity that expresses 2 capacitor and loss number of 10-416181918161818 of × of δ of Tg of loss of C/PF2178225121452117218422162182 of 123456 average sizes from the watch 2 in the electric performance that shows capacitor is wonderful. 4 conclusion (the adhesion of face of electrode of layer of alloy of chemical plating Ni-Cu-P and pottery and porcelain on 1) contented ceramics is good, its capacitance is tall, sex of solder of soft drill rod is good, interpose report loss is small, can satisfy the use requirement in production. (2)Ni-Cu-P electrode face is bright and clean degree, the electrode face that flatness excel burns ooze silver, damage electrode face wear-resisting, anti-corrosively, not easily and become angry. (New technology of the electrode on 3) pottery and porcelain replaces the silver that burn ooze with chemical plating Ni-Cu-P, can save many silver for the country. (4) process is simple, what use device is little and low-cost, method reliable, operation is convenient. CNC Milling CNC Machining